How accurate do you suppose the testing is for determining someone's racial composition by DNA analysis?
Question: I ask because I recently had a genetic analysis done just out of curiosity's sake, and I was not at all prepared for the answer I was given. In fact, the company that did the test and I are in quite vehement disagreement over whether it could be accurate. They claim, according to their genetic analysis, I am primarily European with some African ancestry. As far as I know, most of my ancestors are Native American, with a few Europeans thrown in to the mix in the last three or four generations, but like I said, they claim there isn't a drop of Native American blood in me, but more than a trace of African. I told them that couldn't possibly be true because my mother is 3/4 Native American by lineal descent and doesn't have a European grandmother, so it would be next to impossible for her to pass on exclusively European DNA to me. Even if she inherited nothing but her mother's European chromosomes (unlikely in the extreme), she would still inherit her maternal grandmother's Native American mitochondrial DNA, and so would I. Their response was to tell me I just don't understand how DNA works. My response was to tell them I might not be a geneticist, but I am perfectly capable of using A MIRROR. White people might sometimes have a bit of trouble picking me out of a crowd, but I've never had a single Native American who mistook me for anything else. So, are the tests really as sure-fire as the company claims, or is this a case where people are trying to sell something before we actually have a thorough enough understanding to be able to make these determinations accurately? Kamien-- Yes, our family has been on the rolls since there were rolls to be on. Her father was registered as full Muscogee, and her grandmother as full Cherokee. My father is also part Choctaw, but that didn't really seem necessary to mention since his mother is Irish (not because I think Irish people are unimportant, but because that makes it theoretically possible for him to pass on nothing but European genes to me) I myself am registered as a quarter-blood Muscogee, simply because the government only allows Indians to register as members of one tribe, and then only to the degree they have ancestry in that tribe. This isn't a matter of someone simply saying "and you know, you have some Indian in you". It has been very well tracked for generations. Whoops. Apologies, Kanien. Finger slipped. Didn't mean to misspell your name. Jo-- Same thing. Seen the documentation. Carry around the ID card in my wallet. Had to get a letter from the BIA to get a Driver's License when I moved to CA (which confused the Hell out of me, since I already had an OK license, had a certified birth certificate, and was under the impression all Native Americans were made citizens in 1924). Been forced to use the health care enough to laugh at white people who resent the fact Natives get it. The tribe popped for my college education. Whole nine. If I'm not an Indian, at least two different tribal governments (couldn't tell you about the Choctaw, my grandmother and grandfather got divorced pretty early on in my father's life, so he didn't spend much time around them) and the United States government have teamed up with my family to lie to me about my racial background. Kanien-- Sorry I haven't checked up on this question sooner. The test wasn't supposed to just give me an idea of my racial background, but also tell me a lot of other little quirks about my DNA. I thought it would be fun to learn them. I wasn't really that interested in the "family history" part of the test until it turned out like that. The other results didn't turn out much better, either. According to their genetic profile, I should also be a freckle-faced ginger midget with curly hair. However, using my aforementioned mastery of the mirror technology, I am relatively sure that is also incorrect, as it appears I am slightly taller than average, have straight, dark brown hair, and almost no freckles at all. That also goes toward convincing me it is their analysis and not my family history which is in error. I would like to thank everyone for their answers. There are several good answers to this question, so rather than choose one to reward and several to slight, I am going to put this question to a vote. Thanks again.
Best Answers: How accurate do you suppose the testing is for determining someone's racial composition by DNA analysis?
Through studying DNA research (as a personal interest) I don't believe that racial composition by DNA analysis is accurate. There are just to many variables. 1. What is the purpose of the company? Is the purpose research such as the National Genographic Project? (deep ancestry and human migration) Is the purpose to identify mutations that create medical conditions? Is the purpose paternity testing? or is the main purpose to provide genealogical DNA testing as the base business? All companies have a main objective and several secondary objectives. 2. Is their data from primary sources (samples collected throughout the world) or secondary sources (acquired through other world collections/research) 3. How large are their samples per population. Some can be as few as (10 or less) to hundreds. 4. All samples are grouped on a mathematical model. (An "estimated genetic contribution" to a specific group) . . . All new samples are then assigned to a genetic group based on the "mathematical probability" the sample belongs to the various groups. This results in the "%" that the sample is likely to belong to a certain group. 5. Most populations do not have a good sample base. (eg. Europeans have a large sample base, but Africans and Native Americans do not.) One issue that has risen do to this is . . . Based on the large European genetic sample base certain mutations have been identified as producing certain medical conditions. Now that more African populations have been sampled, the African samples have the same mutations without exhibiting the medical conditions found in Europeans. Indicating the conditions are not solely based on the mutations identified. 6. The Native American sample base is also not fully understood, due to small sample size. It was once thought that Native Americans belonged only to A, B, C, D, and X mtDNA haplotypes. That was later revised to "6" then "9" and at last count it's up to "19" A similar situation exists in the Native American Y Chromosomal DNA. ------------------- Lastly I always wondered why the genetic tree structure that identifies the "world population relationships", labelled the African (where mankind is supposed to originate) mtDNA as L1, L2, L3. and the Native Americans (supposedly the last population to colonize an area) mtDNA is labelled A, B, C and D. Which would seem to be reversed. Then I read that there are 27 possible (mathematical) genetic tree structures. And the current structure is the one that closely fits the "Out of Africa Theory". Although this may have no relevance, it definitely shook my belief that science has a clear picture of human genetics. I follow 2 DNA research companies. In examining their data you can see many anomalies. I continue to follow their work because, I am interested in if these anomalies will ever be resolved or even discussed. In the end all research may be accurate, on the other hand I believe, as new data is added we will end up with a very different picture then the current one. .
Why we should KEEP speed limits! Speed limits are an important law anywhere you go,in the following paragraphs i will tell you how they help us in various different ways.Such as, Accident prevention,making it to your desired destination,and even saving money. Speed limits keep many people safe,because if you were able to go any speed you want which would most likely be high in most cases wouldn't only endanger you but also pedestrians and other drivers.By keeping to the speed limit of the area you're in you can prevent accidents that occur 15000+ times a year in the US.Not only does this happen while just speeding,this can happen while speeding past a red light. Speed limits also are important to those who need to make it to a desired destination in a certain period of time,although driving over the speed limit could very well help you to get to your destination quicker,it would be harder due to the fact that you might miss needed turns or make a wrong turn in a haste.Speed limits will prevent this by letting you prepare for a necessary turn. Speeding can also make your car malfunction,if your car is old,out of shape,or in some cases even if its new.Speeding can ruin your cars engine,and gas tank,meaning you would have to repair it which cost a high amount of money for most people.Though sometimes you can damage your car to the point of no return in which case if this event was to happen you would need to buy an entirely new car.Meaning more money out of your pocket. I hoped this brief essay helped you to obey the speed limits if you are not already.Speeding can help you in some cases but overall the cons outweigh the pros.And who doesn't want some extra money? ______________________________________... Sorry if i made any mistakes or its too short im at school otherwise i would've done better.I hope this helps!
Well, there is a bit of a "guesstimation" involved in those admixture tests - since it is based on a proprietary alogorithm that these companies don't want to discuss specifically...but basically, they are looking at the "probabilities" that a sequence (found along specific SNPs) is "from" a given ethnic population. The problem is, unlike mtDNA or Y-DNA testing...the DNA sequences that they are isolating and testing are found within DIFFERENT populations... just at different frequencies. So, this is not entirely accurate. Also, there is confusion between different populations that are UNRELATED that show up as a match. So, these test can't differentiate one from the other...and you get false readings. But...there IS another phenomenon in this country of people claiming "Native American" blood inaccuaretly (and even unbeknownst to the claimants)...but that these stories actually came about to cover for African ancestry. It is very rare to hear a white person say they have a little Black blood...but it is quite common to hear people claim "Indian blood" (e.g. Cherokee). But statistically speaking, there should be VASTLY greater numbers of people claiming White-Black admixture. Yet, it is almost unheard of. So, perhaps your family has a secret history of "passing" and you have no idea about this. If your mother - who is supposed to be 3/4 - is not enrolled and her family members (both parents at that blood degree) are not FROM a tribal community...meaning, a federally recognized tribe...then you probably have an Indian Blood Myth anyway. The only way to "know" your ancestry is to have firm documentation that your relatives/ancestors were recognized tribal members...not that they had "blood" or whatever from stories...they should be listed as FBI or heavy blooded Indians by documentation and political affiliation. EDIT: Finally, a followup edit from an Asker that just clarifies/states tribal affiliation plain and simple. Refreshing. But this is still interesting because ya know...Creeks did have a bit of intermarriage with Africans back in the day...you may carry markers of this. But again, those admixture test are really NOT reliable to the degree that people think they are...
...has ended in the Tokyo area... I had free time...... .....watched the All Star games on MLB. I went out around noon, after brunch. I went to the Chiba office to attend the lecture on our new products. There was about 40 other members attending. In my opinion, I think it's a great job. I'd like to think sales will be high. Since I had free time, I went for a haircut. You are doing well; keep up the good work! Donna
You just caught a glimpse of the "terrible" mistakes humanity is about to make. DNA is a complex algorithm. Of which we have very little knowledge about thus far. As it is the "language" of life wouldn't you agree it had better be studied like a new (foreign) "language" ? Yet already without fully understanding what this language is saying already "science" (read the big bucks) pretends to be fully aware of it's implications. Do you remember what were some of the first things "science" did with this "new" technology. (cloning for example "dolly").Do you remember one of the first things people started pondering? Like if "designer" babies were to become a reality, as if the rich and famous need some other "tool" to keep the masses in check. Always people taking technology to misuse/abuse first and they learn the "wrongs" of their ways the "hard" way, only this time it's with the very fabric of life itself. As it stands we "share" about 96/ 97 % of our DNA with chimps leaving the rest as what distinguish us from them. Also it has been found that very "little" of the DNA is actually "active" suggesting that DNA is so powerful to do so "much" with very "little". And also what I think (this is my opinion) shows that the day we have a reasonably good understanding of this, most of the DNA would be "baggage" acquired over millennium and read correctly would give us a great view of where did humans evolve/originated from. So evolution would be debunked or confirmed totally or something new we never thought of could emerge. This being said science knows too little as of yet to give any accurate readings about "ethnicity" for anybody as they barely finished the "genome" project and have too "little" data on record to accurately predict anything, they do not have enough "COMPLETE" profiles of all possible "ethnic" backgrounds, as you may already know this is still quite an expensive venture. So they don"t have statistical enough data to make any statistical significant claim to squat. sorry but that is what it stands at right now, don't let them BS you with "fancy technical jargon", they just need more money to keep research ongoing without telling everybody they're not even taking "baby-steps" yet, remember these are the "all knowing" people and we"re mere "sheep" they herd along. I have no grudge against science for I have been following it my whole life, just don't appreciate how it's been misused/abused the whole time. Peace
Paragraph 1: Good opening statement. But you do have a lot of stuff in your intro paragraph that's unnecessary. This paragraph should focus on telling the reader what you are going to talk about. Instead of giving suggestion like "Drive at a safe speed and be courteous to other drivers" or "It can get overwhelming out there, so try to stay calm" just cut to the chase and say what are the issues you will discuss. And most importantly at the end sum up the whole point of the paper in one sentence called a thesis statement. For example, "In sum, driving in winter yields more dangers than driving in summer. This is what everything will have to boil down to so make sure it's a good statement. Paragraph 2: The best recommendation I can give you when it comes to driving in bad winter weather would to be don’t drive at all unless it is an absolutly necasary. This sentence is just not good. Why are you giving a recommendation? Secondly it has spelling and grammar errors. Heres an idea all those suggestions you give can be turned into examples for the main points of the paragraph. Look: Driving in ban winter weather is a dangerous task and should be avoided. However, since most people can not avoid it we must find a way to make conditions as safe as possible. For example, the so and so says that when not equipped with snow chains trucks roll over. This means that if one must drive in snowy conditions one must have the proper equipment. Furthermore, driving in snowy conditions also makes it harder to see. For example, so and so says that 80% of accidents are caused by driver negligence. This means that when driving one must take heed your surroundings and and drive with the utmost caution. Thus, if one must drive in the snow having proper vehicle equipment and careful driving practices are a must. (This is just an example) Paragraph 3 has the same issues as the previous two focus less on suggestions and more on writing paragraphs similar to my example. The conclusion should be formulated like this: sentence 1: restate thesis. sentence 2: restate main point of body paragraph 1 (essay paragraph 2) and so on until you finish restating main points. Then add a closing statement, something simple that relates well to your thesis.
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